Digital technologies, machine learning and Artificial Intelligence (AI) are revolutionizing the fields of medicine, research and public health. While holding great promise, this rapidly developing field raises ethical, legal and social concerns, e.g. regarding equitable access, privacy, appropriate uses and users, liability and bias and inclusiveness. These issues are trans-national in nature, as capturing, sharing and using data generated or used by these technologies goes beyond national boundaries. The tools, methods and technologies used in “Big Data” and AI are being applied to improve health services and systems. However, many questions remain unanswered concerning the ethical development and use of these technologies, including how low- and middle-income countries will benefit from AI developments.